Q1. A jailor decided to play a game with his prisoners who were extremely adept at logical analysis. The prisoners were Aristotle, Bach, Coutin, Dell & Einstein. He gave them each a box of money and said "Each of you have received a box of currency. All boxes look identical from outside." The jailor then asked each prisoner to secretly open the boxes and look at the currency inside. He then said "three of you have a box containing Indian Rupees; two of you have a box containing US Dollars, I shall now give each one of you a chit containing information about the box of exactly one other person. " He did so and asked them to open the chit and see the information provided to them. "None of you will he able to tell the exact currency of any third person ". Then he announced "Bach has a box containing Indian Rupees " Aristotle immediately said "I know the currency of all 5 people. " After some time Einstein also said "so do I, now. " Assume: a prisoner speaks up as soon as he is able to deduce the currency of all five prisoners. Answer the following questions:

1. Apart from Bach, the prisoners with Indian currency were:

(a) Einstein and Dell

(b) Aristotle and Einstein

(c) Coutin and Dell

(d) Aristotle and Coutin

(a) Einstein and Dell

(b) Aristotle and Einstein

(c) Coutin and Dell

(d) Aristotle and Coutin

2. The prisoners given US Dollars were:

(a) Coutin and Dell

(b) Dell and Einstein

(c) Aristotle and Einstein

(d) Aristotle and Dell

(b) Dell and Einstein

(c) Aristotle and Einstein

(d) Aristotle and Dell

3. Whose currency was written in the chit which Aristotle received?

(a) Bach

(b) Einstein

(c) Dell

(d) Coutin

(a) Bach

(b) Einstein

(c) Dell

(d) Coutin

4. Einstein did not receive a chit containing the currency of:

(a) Aristotle

(b) Bach

(c) Dell

(d) Coutin

(a) Aristotle

(b) Bach

(c) Dell

(d) Coutin

5. Dell did not receive a chit containing the currency of:

(a) Aristotle

(b) Bach

(c) Einstein

(d) Coutin

(a) Aristotle

(b) Bach

(c) Einstein

(d) Coutin

6. Coutin did not receive a chit containing the currency of:

(a) Dell

(b) Aristotle

(c) Einstein

(d) Bach

(a) Dell

(b) Aristotle

(c) Einstein

(d) Bach

Solutions:

**The key here is to decide on the basis of people speaking on the basis of additional information.**

__Solutions:__
Since Aristotle speaks up as soon as Bach's currency is known, (rupees), the only scenario that makes this possible is if he had known about the rupee currency of two people (himself + one more). Einstein speaks soon after Aristotle which means both have same currency of Rupees.So, Aristotle has a chit that tells about the Einstein's currency.

1. A)

2. A)

3. B)

4. A) Einstein speaks after Aristotle. So, he knows that Aristotle knows his currency based on the fact that Bach and Aristotle both have rupee and the third person who has rupee is Einstein.

2. A)

3. B)

4. A) Einstein speaks after Aristotle. So, he knows that Aristotle knows his currency based on the fact that Bach and Aristotle both have rupee and the third person who has rupee is Einstein.

5) d) If Dell had known the currency of Coutin, he too have declare that he knows the currency of all as only Dell and Coutin have dollars.

6) a) Same situation holds for Coutin as for Dell.

Q2.

7. The highest percentage increase in quantity between any two consecutive years was for (from the data available)

(a) Other Cereals

(b) Rice

(c) Milk and Cream

(c) None of these

(a) Other Cereals

(b) Rice

(c) Milk and Cream

(c) None of these

8. The expected value of % change in quantity for wheat for 1999-2000 over 1998-99 was closest to:

(a) 21%

(b) 36%

(c) 63%

(d) 58%

(a) 21%

(b) 36%

(c) 63%

(d) 58%

9. The number of instances of over 100% increase seen in quantity between any two consecutive years for all agricultural products shown in the table was about:

(a) 6

(b) 7

(c) 8

(d) None of these

(b) 7

(c) 8

(d) None of these

10. By what percentage has the total imports grown firom 1997-98 to 1998-99?

(a) 11%

(b) 14%

(c) 18%

(d) 21%

(b) 14%

(c) 18%

(d) 21%

11. Which of the following has shown a continuous de- crease in its quantity of imports?

(a) Cashew Nuts

(b) Pulses

(c) Wheat

(d) Both a&c

(a) Cashew Nuts

(b) Pulses

(c) Wheat

(d) Both a&c

12. The highest price for vegetable and animal fats was realised in the year

(a) 1997-98

(b) 1998-99

(c) 1999-2000

(d) Cannot be determined

(a) 1997-98

(b) 1998-99

(c) 1999-2000

(d) Cannot be determined

13. The likely growth (expected) for total agricultural imports in 1999-2000 over 1998-99 is closest to:

(a) 8%

(b) 10%

(c) 11%

(d) 13%

(a) 8%

(b) 10%

(c) 11%

(d) 13%

14. The value of how many agricultural products have followed the same trend (as of total agricultural products imports):

(a) 4

(b) 6

(c) 7

(d) 8

(a) 4

(b) 6

(c) 7

(d) 8

**Solutions:**

**7.**A) Spices seem to have the highest percentage increase. But author quotes other cereals as answer.

**8**. C) Simply multilply the %age in options with answer to find the solution. You can also make a guess here by adding 10% twice to 1346932. Remember that 164548 has to be multiplied thrice as given in question.

**9**. C) Check the number of times the quantity of an item has grown more than

__twice__. It will be 8 times that price has increased more than double.

Animal and vegetable fat has increased more than double in both 1998-99 & 1999-2000

**10.**B) Note here that the question asks about total imports and not the total Agri. imports. The total imports can be calculated as:

4.54/100 × x1 = 700254

6.17/100 × x2 = 1087034

Now %age increase = (x2 - x1)/x1 = x2/x1 -1=

To make calculation easier, forget 100 in the denominator as all 100s will be cancelled in calculation. Also divide 700 by 4.5 and 1087 by 6.1. The final calculation will be close to 14%.

**11.**D) visually solvable

**12**. a) Price is calculated as value/quantity

**13.**A) 392351×3 ÷ 1087034 ~ 1177/1087 = 1.08

Hence 8% growth.

**14.**C) The total Agri. imports have shown an increasing trend from 1997-98 to 1999-2000

There are 7 items that show the same trend : rice, other cereals, milk and cream, sugar, oilseeds, vegetable oils -edible, vegetable and animal fats.

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